1. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Endoscopy mainly includes upper gastrointestinal endoscopy ( Gastroscopy ) & colonoscopy.
    Endoscopic procedures are done either for diagnostic or for therapeutic purposes Diagnostic endoscopy doesnt require hospitalization but therapeutic may require. Prior to procedure adequate preparation for an endoscopy includes patient education We generally make use of the diagrams & videos to explain the procedure to the patient.

If patient presents with acidity, heart-burn, burning in the stomach, difficulty in swallowing, vomiting blood, belching etc.

Preparation before procedure: 
Patient should avoid eating solids as well as liquids for 6 to 8 hours before gastroscopy, although small sips of water to take medicines should not be a problems.

It is done by special equipment called as Gastroscope is a fibre optic pipe ( tube ) with light source attached to it. Recording & photo print machine also used in this procedure.
In this procedure we look for the food-pipe, stomach ulcers, infection, hernias, etc. If there is any pathological finding seen like ulcer ,growth where cancer is suspected then biopsies(piece from stomach wall) cab be taken for histopathology to confirm diagnosis.
Procedure is done with the patient in lying left lateral position. It takes just 2-3 minuts for the procedure.

Local xylocaine 4% spray is use to anaesthetized the throat so that scope easily pass through mouth to food pipe & the stomach, for some patients if they are anxious then sleeping drugs(intravenous sedation) can also be given.

After the procedure patient should not eat or drink for 1 hour. Then he can take liquid followed by solid food accordingly.

It is a diagnostic procedure to rule out lower abdominal and ano rectal disease. A flexible colonoscope is a fiberoptic tube like instrument used for the procedure, In this procedure we give bowel preparation to clear the bowel for better visibility.
Position: Left lateral position.
Anaesthesia: Local anaesthesia with 2%xylocaine jelly, and if required sedation

Scope insert in anal region with xylocain jelly for smooth passage along with minimum air and suction also help for complete view of sigmoid colon, Indication is mainly bleeding, stricture, polyps any abnormal growth, tumors( cancer), irritable bowel syndrome, (I B S), etc.

This procedure is indicated when only left half of the large intestine is to be visualized. Procedure & precautions are same as that of colonoscopy.